In the year 1806 an Archives was established in Freiburg, which was responsible for the former province Oberrhein. Due to centralisation of the Archives in Baden, the Archives in Freiburg was closed in 1840, and its records were kept in the Badisches Generallandesarchiv in Karlsruhe, which remained the only State Archives in Baden until 1945.
After the Second World War Baden was divided into a French and American sector. In the South of Baden - occupied by the French - an independent German administration was established with Freiburg as the capital in 1947. An independent archival administration was part of this process, too. In 1947/48 the Badische Landesarchivamt was founded, whose main responsibility was to look after the local records, yet, at the same time, it had the function of a State Archives.
After the foundation of the Land Baden-Württemberg in 1952 the close co-operation between these two authorities remained for the time being. In April 1953 the State Archives became a branch of the Generallandesarchiv in Karlsruhe, whereas the Landesarchivamt (from December 1954: Staatliches Amt für Archivpflege, an office which has public responsibility for local and private archives) was controlled by the Regierungspräsidium Freiburg. Both agencies were run by the same person. At the end of 1971 the Amt für Archivpflege was abolished. Its competence was taken over by the branch of the Generallandesarchiv. This branch became an independent State Archives for the governmental district (Regierungsbezirk) Freiburg on January 1st, 1975. In 1989 a final delimitation of the records with the Generallandesarchiv took place, which was carried out in 1991.
Due to the administration reform in Baden-Württemberg the Staatsarchiv Freiburg became a department of the Landesarchiv on January 1st, 2005.