Since the 12th century the Counts and later the Princes of Hohenlohe have influenced the territorial, political and economic development in the northeast of the present Baden-Württemberg. In the course of the centuries the House of Hohenlohe split up into different branches. This fact had an impact on their administration and records. Another result was that each line of the House of Hohenlohe had their own registries and record offices in the territory in which they ruled. Only twice - at the beginning of the 16th century and at the beginning of the 18th century - did they build joint record offices. When they lost their sovereignty in 1806 the Archives remained where they had been built.
After World War II the family archivist of the House of Hohenlohe began to bring together the partly damaged archives in the castle of Neuenstein. In order to preserve them and to secure their description and access a contract was signed between the Land Baden-Württemberg and the House of Hohenlohe to the effect that the archives remain the property of the House of Hohenlohe and that the Land is responsible for their appropriate keeping. In 1975 Neuenstein became a branch of the State Archives Ludwigsburg.
Due to the administration reform in Baden-Württemberg the Hohenlohe-Zentralarchiv Neuenstein became a department of the Landesarchiv on January 1st, 2005.