Due to secularisation and mediatisation in the Napoleonic era a considerable number of records of the Archives of the Teutonic Order in Mergentheim and records of the Prince-Provost of Ellwangen were given to Württemberg, which caused Württemberg to establish new branches at both places. The archives of some former imperial towns were brought together in Heilbronn.
In 1868/69 all the three branches were housed in the castle of Ludwigsburg and the new Archives got the name Staatsfilialarchiv Ludwigsburg. After that date the records of the Foreign Office (Auswärtiges Amt), Law Court (Reichskammergericht), College of Justice (Lehenrat and Justizkolleg) were also transferred to Ludwigsburg. In 1921 the records of the Ministry of Finance and the Interior were added. In 1938 the Filialarchiv became the State Archives of Ludwigsburg.
After the Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart had been destroyed during World War II, a great number of records were stored in Ludwigsburg from 1945 to 1969. In 1968/69 a new house for the Central State Archives in Stuttgart was built and new areas of responsibilities were assigned to the two Archives.
It was Ludwigburg's responsibility to keep the records of the territory of Neuwürttemberg in the governmental district (Regierungsbezirk) Nordwürttemberg, which had become part of Württemberg after 1802 due to secularisation and mediatisation. The records which had been created by the state agencies and inferior law courts and the records of senior agencies of the 19th and 20th centuries were also stored in Ludwigsburg.
From 1992 to 1995 the State Archives moved from the castle to new buildings. The administration office and the reading room are now in the arsenal barracks (Arsenalkaserne) and the stacks are stored at the armoury (Zeughaus). These buildings had been re-built taking into consideration all the latest demands for modern archival buildings.
Due to the administration reform in Baden-Württemberg the Staatsarchiv Ludwigsburg bacame a department of the Landesarchiv on January 1st, 2005.